Is it possible to not display products with missing images in the search results?
To achieve that, you would need to not index products that have no image by using the “should index filter” documented here: https://community.algolia.com/wordpress/indexing-flow.html#indexing-decision
To be successful though, you will need to find a way to detect that the image is missing. And according to what I’ve seen on your website, the image links are actually provided, but the files on the system are missing.
I think the best option would be to simply “unpublish” the products that have no images.